clara.vrx.palo-alto.ca.us
Articles | Bespoke web | Design | Editor | WORKS
INU AI| Photoessays | Pumpkin
Cartierism | Addiction | Arctic | Canada | Diabetes | DIET| Essiac | Health | Health benefit list | Healthy food | Illness | Language | Niacin | Reference | Selenium
Ahsoak | Cooking | Dr lustig | Fats | Food guide | Food prices | Health drive | History | Hunting | Nutrition facts | SUGAR
PART 1| Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 | Part 5
Sugar:The Bitter Truth
Sugar:The Bitter Truth


0:01 - [Announcer] This program is presented
0:02 by University of California Television.
0:05 Like what you learn?
0:06 Visit our website, or follow us
0:08 on Facebook and Twitter to keep up
0:10 with the latest UCTV programs.
0:20 (upbeat techno music)
1:06 - I'm going to tell you, tonight, a story.
1:10 And this story dates back about 30 years.
1:15 This story has a little bit of something for everybody.
1:18 It has a little bit of biochemistry,
1:21 a little bit of clinical research,
1:23 a little bit of public health,
1:25 a little bit of politics, a little bit of racial innuendo.
1:29 The only thing it's missing is sex.
1:31 (audience laughs)
1:32 But, well, we can see what we can do about that, too.
1:37 By the end of the story I hope I will
1:39 have debunked the last 30 years
1:41 of nutrition information in America.
1:44 And I would very much appreciate it
1:45 if at the end of the talk, you would tell me
1:47 whether or not I was successful or not.
1:50 Okay?
1:51 So, in order to get you in the mood,
1:54 as it were, let's start with a little quiz.
1:57 What do the Atkins Diet
1:58 and the Japanese Diet have in common?
2:03 Anybody?
2:05 Hm?
2:06 Oh, you have the answers right, never mind.
2:10 That's right, you have the answer right there.
2:13 So the Atkins diet, of course, is all fat no carb.
2:16 The Japanese diet's all carb, not fat.
2:18 They both work, right?
2:22 So what do they share in common?
2:24 They both eliminate the sugar, fructose.
2:28 So, with that, think about what it means to be on a diet,
2:34 and what macro-nutrients you're eating
2:37 and which ones your not.
2:38 And then we'll go from there, and I'll try
2:40 to explain how this all works.
2:42 So, you've all heard about the obesity epidemic.
2:45 Here are the numbers.
2:47 These are the NHANES database Body Mass Index.
2:52 Everybody knows what that is now.
2:53 Histograms marching ever rightward as time has gone on.
2:58 This was what was projected for 2008 in blue.
3:01 We had so far exceeded and surpassed,
3:03 this is not even funny.
3:04 This was from 2003.
3:05 The reason I show this is not just to show
3:08 that the obese are getting obeser,
3:10 of course, that's true, but in fact
3:12 the entire curve has shifted.
3:14 We all weigh 25 pounds more today
3:17 than we did 25 years ago, all of us.
3:19 Now, it is often said that obesity
3:22 is the ultimate interaction between
3:24 genetics and environment.
3:26 And Doctor Christian Vaisse, who's sitting
3:27 in the back of the room, will be talking
3:29 to you next week about the genetic component,
3:31 which I am also very interested in.
3:33But, having said that, our genetic pool
3:36did not change in the last 30 years,
3:38but, boy oh boy, has our environment sure changed.
3:42So, tonight, we're gonna talk about
3:43the environment rather than genes.
3:46Now, in order to talk about the environment,
3:48we need to talk about what is obesity.
3:50And, of course, you're all familiar with
3:52the basic concept with the first law of thermodynamics,
3:55which states that the total energy
3:56inside a closed system remains constant.
3:59Now, in human terms, the standard interpretation
4:02of this law is the following.
4:05If you eat it, you better burn it, or you're gonna store it.
4:11Now, who here believes that?
4:13Oh, come on, you all do.
4:14(audience laughs)
4:16I used to believe that.
4:18I don't anymore.
4:19I think that's a mistake.
4:21I think that is the biggest mistake.
4:22And that is the phenomenon I'm going to try to debunk
4:27over the course over the next hour.
4:30Because I think there's another way to state the law
4:33which is much more relevant, and much more to the point.
4:36Before I get there, of course, if you believe that,
4:39these are the two problems, calories in, calories out.
4:42Two behaviors, gluttony and sloth.
4:45After all, you see anybody on the street,
4:47"Oh, he's a gluttonous sloth, that's all there is to it."
4:50Tommy Thompson said it on the TV show.
4:52"We just eat too damn much."
4:54Well, you know, if that were the case,
4:57how did the Japanese do this?
4:59Why are they doing bariatric surgery
5:00on children at Tokyo Children's Hospital today?
5:04Why are the Chinese, why are the Koreans,
5:06why are the Australians?
5:08I mean, all these countries who've adopted our diet
5:12all suffer now from the same problem.
5:14And we're gonna get even further in a minute.
5:17There's another way to state this first law.
5:20And that is, if you're gonna store it,
5:22that is biochemical forces that drive energy storage,
5:27and we'll talk about what they are in a few minutes,
5:29and you expect to burn it, that is normal
5:33energy expenditure for normal quality of life.
5:36Because energy expenditure and quality of life
5:38are the same thing.
5:40Things that make your energy expenditure go up,
5:43make you feel good.
5:44Like ephedrine, it's off the market,
5:46coffee for two yours, then you need another hit, like me.
5:50Things that make your energy expenditure go down,
5:53like starvation, hypothyroidism, make you feel lousy.
5:58And how many calories you burn
6:00and how good you feel are synonymous.
6:02So, if you're gonna store it,
6:04that is an obligate weight gain
6:05set up by a biochemical process,
6:07and you expect to burn it, that is normal
6:09energy expenditure for normal quality of life,
6:12then you're gonna have to eat it.
6:14And now, all of the sudden, these two behaviors,
6:18the gluttony and the sloth, are actually secondary
6:20to a biochemical process, which is primary.
6:24And it's a different way to think about the process.
6:26And it also alleviates the obese person
6:29from being the perpetrator, but rather the victim.
6:33Which is how obese people really feel.
6:36'Cause no one chooses to be obese.
6:38Certainly, no child chooses to be obese.
6:40Oh, you say, "Oh, yeah, sure,
6:42"I know some adults who don't care."
6:43You know, Rossini, the famous composer,
6:46you know La gazza ladra, Figaro, and all that.
6:48He retired at age 37
6:50to a lifetime of gastronomic debauchery.
6:52Maybe he chose to be obese.
6:55But the kids I take care of in obesity clinic
6:58do not choose to be obese.
7:00In fact, this is the exception that proves the rule.
7:06We have an epidemic of obese six month olds.
7:10Now, if you wanna say that it's all about
7:12diet and exercise, then you have to explain this to me.
7:16So, any hypothesis that you wanna proffer
7:20that explains the obesity epidemic,
7:22you've got to explain this one too.
7:25And this is not just in America,
7:27these six month old obese kids,
7:28but these are around the world now.
7:32So, open your minds?, and let's go
7:35and figure out what the real story is.
7:40Let's talk about calorie intake,
7:42because that's what today is about.
7:43We're gonna talk about the
7:44energy intake side of the equation.
7:47Sure enough, we are all eating more now
7:50than we did 20 year ago.
7:53Teen boys are eating 275 calories more.
7:56American adult males are eating 187 calories more per day.
8:01American adult females are eating 335 calories more per day.
8:06No question, we're all eating more.
8:08Question is why, how come?
8:11'Cause it's all there?
8:12You know what, it was there before.
8:15We're all eating more, there's a system
8:18in our body, which you've heard about
8:19over the last couple of weeks called leptin.
8:22Everybody heard of leptin?
8:23It's this hormone that comes from your fat cell,
8:25tells your brain, "You know what, I've had enough.
8:27"I don't need to eat anymore.
8:29"I'm done, and I can burn energy properly."
8:32Well, you know what?
8:33If you're eating 187 or 335 calories more today
8:36than you were 20 years ago, your leptin ain't working.
8:39'Cause if it were, you wouldn't be doing it.
8:41Whether the food was there or not.
8:43So, there's something wrong with our
8:46biochemical negative feedback system
8:49that normally controls energy balance.
8:52And we have to figure out what caused it,
8:55and how to reverse it.
8:56And that's what tonight is about.
8:58But, nonetheless, there are 275 calories
9:00we have to account for.
9:02So where are they?
9:03Are they in the fat?
9:05No, they're not in the fat.
9:08Five grams, 45 calories out of the 275, nothing.
9:11In fact, it's all in the carbohydrates.
9:1557 grams 228 calories.
9:17We're all eating more carbohydrate.
9:19Now, you all know, back int 1982,
9:22The American Heart Association,
9:24The American Medical Association,
9:26and the US Department of Agriculture
9:28admonished us to reduce our total
9:31fat consumption from 40% to 30%.
9:34Everybody remember that?
9:36That how Entenmann's fat free cakes came into being.
9:41Remember that?
9:42So what happened?
9:44We did it, we've done it.
9:4640% down to 30%, and look what's happened
9:49to the obesity, metabolic syndrome,
9:52non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease,
9:54stroke prevalence, all jacked way up,
9:58as our total fat consumption as a percent has gone down.
10:03It ain't the fat, people, it ain't the fat.
10:06So what is it?
10:07Well, it's the carbohydrate.
10:08Specifically, which carbohydrate?
10:10Well, beverage intake, right?
10:1341% increase in soft drinks, 35% increase in fruit drinks,
10:18fruitades, whatever you wanna call them.
10:22Just remember, down here,
10:23one can of soda a day, is 150 calories.
10:27Multiply that by 365 days a year,
10:30and then divide that by the magic number
10:32of 3500 calories per pound,
10:34if you eat or drink 3500 calories
10:36more than you burn, you will gain one pound of fat.
10:40That's the first law of thermodynamics, no argument there.
10:43That's worth 15 1/2 pounds of fat per year.
10:45One soda a day is 15 1/2 pounds per year.
10:47Now, you've all heard that before.
10:49That's not news to you.
10:51The question is how come we don't respond?
10:55How come leptin doesn't work?
10:57How come we can't stay energy stable.
11:00That's what we're gonna get to.
11:02So, I call this slide, very specifically,
11:05the Coca Cola Conspiracy.
11:07Anybody here work for Coke, Pepsi?
11:11Okay, good.
11:12All right, so, this over here, 1915,
11:16the first standardized bottle of Coca Cola out of Atlanta.
11:19Anybody remember this bottle?
11:21Sure, a lot of you do.
11:23I remember this bottle, because my grandfather
11:25in Brooklyn, took me on Saturday afternoon
11:28down to the local soda shop on Avenue M and Ocean Avenue,
11:32and every Saturday afternoon I had one of these.
11:35I remember it very well.
11:37Now, if you drank one of those every day,
11:39assuming of course that the recipe hasn't changed,
11:42'cause after all, only two people in the word
11:43know the recipe, and they're not allowed
11:45to fly on the plane at the same time.
11:47You know that, okay.
11:48Assuming the recipe hasn't changed,
11:50if you drank one of those every day for a year,
11:516 1/2 ounces, that would be worth
11:53eight pounds of fat per year.
11:56Now, in 1955, after World War II,
11:59when sugar became plentiful again,
12:01and wasn't being rationed,
12:02we have the appearance of the 10 ounce bottle,
12:04the first one that was found in vending machines.
12:07You probably remember that one, as well.
12:09Then in 1960, the ever ubiquitous,
12:1112 ounce can, worth 16 pounds of fat per year.
12:15And, of course, today, this, over here
12:17is the single unit of measure, 20 ounces.
12:20Anybody know how many servings are in that bottle?
12:23- [Audience Member] 2.5.
12:24- 2.5 eight ounce servings, that's right.
12:27 Anybody know, anybody gets 2.5 eight ounce
12:30 servings out of that bottle?
12:31 That's a single serving, right?
12:34 So that would be worth 26 pounds of fat per year
12:36 if you did that every day.
12:37 And then, of course, over here,
12:38 we have the 7/11 Big K, Thirst Buster,
12:40 Big Gulp, whatever you wanna call it,
12:42 44 ounces, worth 57 pounds of fat per year.
12:45 And if that wasn't bad enough, my colleague,
12:47 Dr. Dan Hale, at the University of Texas San Antonio,
12:50 tells me that down there they got a Texas size Big Gulp.
12:54 60 ounces of Coca Cola, a Snickers bar,
12:57 and a bag of Doritos, all for 99 cents.
12:59 - [Audience] Oh.
13:01 - So if you did that every day for a year
13:03 that would be worth 112 pounds of fat per year.
13:06 So why do I call it the Coca Cola conspiracy?
13:11 Well, what's in Coke?
13:14 Caffeine, good, good, so what's caffeine?
13:16 It's a mild stimulant, right?
13:18 It's also a diuretic, right?
13:19 It makes you pee free water.
13:21 What else is in Coke?
13:24 We'll get to the sugar in a minute, what else?
13:27 Salt, salt.
13:29 55 milligrams of sodium per can.
13:31 It's like drinking a pizza.
13:33 So what happens if you take on sodium
13:36 and lose free water, you get...
13:38 - [Audience] Thirsty.
13:38 - Thirstier, right.
13:40 So, why's there so much sugar in Coke?
13:43 To hide the salt.
13:45 When was the last time you went to a Chinese restaurant,
13:46 had sweet and sour pork?
13:48 That's half soy sauce, you wouldn't eat that.
13:50 Except the sugar plays a trick on your tongue,
13:52 you can't even tell it's there.
13:54 Everybody remember New Coke, 1985?
13:58 More salt, more caffeine.
14:00 They knew what they were doing.
14:02 That's the smoking gun.
14:04 They know, they know.
14:07 All right, so, that's why it's the Coca Cola conspiracy.
14:10 So, are soft drinks the cause of obesity?
14:13 Well, depends on who you ask.
14:14 If you ask the scientists for the
14:16 National Soft Drink Association,
14:17 they'll tell you there's absolutely
14:18 no association between sugar consumption and obesity.
14:22 If you ask my colleague, Doctor David Ludwig,
14:24 remember, I'm Lustig he's Ludwig,
14:26 he does what I do at Boston Children's Hospital.
14:28 Some day we're gonna open up a law firm.
14:31 (audience laughs)
14:31 Each additional sugar sweetened drink increase
14:34 over a 19 month follow up period in kids
14:36 increased their BMI by this much
14:37 in their odds risk ratio for obesity by 60%.
14:42 That's a prospective study on soft drinks and obesity.
14:46 The real deal.
14:48 If you look at meta-analysis,
14:49 everybody know what a meta-analysis is?
14:51 It's a conglomeration of numerous studies
14:53 subjected to rigorous statistical analysis.
14:57 88 cross sectional and longitudinal studies
14:59 regressing soft drink consumption against
15:01 energy intake, body weight, milk and calcium intake,
15:03 adequate nutrition, all showing significant associations.
15:08 And some of these being longitudinal,
15:09 this came from Kelly Brownell's group at Yale.
15:13 I should comment, a disclaimer, those studies
15:15 that were funded by the beverage industry
15:17 showed consistently smaller effects
15:19 than those that were independent.
15:21 Wonder why.
15:23 Now, how 'bout the converse?
15:24 What if you take the soft drinks away?
15:27 So this was the fizzy drink study
15:28 from Christ Church England James et al,
15:30 British Medical Journal, where they went
15:33 into schools and they took the soda machines out.
15:35 Just like we did here in California.
15:38 We haven't seen the data yet,
15:39 but they went and did it for a year.
15:41 So the prevalence of obesity in
15:43 the intervention schools stayed
15:44 absolutely constant, no change.
15:46 Whereas the prevalence of obesity
15:47 in the control schools where nothing changed
15:50 continued to rise over the year.
15:53 So that's pretty good.
15:55 So, how 'bout type two diabetes?
15:57 Are soft drinks the cause of type two diabetes?
16:00 Well, this study from JAMA in 2004
16:03 looked at the relative risk ratio
16:05 of all soft drinks, cola, fruit punch,
16:07 and found a very statistically significant
16:09 trend of sugared soft drinks, fruitades,
16:13 et cetera, causing type two diabetes.
16:15 And you know we've got just as big a problem
16:17 with type two diabetes as we do
16:18 with obesity for the same reasons.
16:21 And this was a sugared sweetened beverage against
16:23 risk for type two diabetes in African American women.
16:25 Looking here at sugar sweetened soft drinks,
16:27 just the downward arrow shows that
16:30 there was a significant rise
16:32 as the number of drinks went up.
16:34 You can see that here.
16:35 Whereas orange and grapefruit juice, interestingly, did not.
16:39 So, two different studies, two different increases
16:43 in type two diabetes, relative to soft drink consumption.
16:47 So, what's in soft drinks?
16:49 Well, in America, it's this stuff, right?
16:52 High fructose corn syrup.
16:54 Everybody's heard of it, right?
16:55 It's been demonized something awful.
16:57 So much so that the corn refiners industry
17:00 has launched a mega-campaign to try
17:03 to absolve high fructose corn syrup of any problems,
17:06 which we'll talk about in a moment.
17:08 But the bottom line is, this is something
17:10 we were never exposed to before 1975.
17:14 And currently we are consuming
17:15 63 pounds per person per year, every one of us,
17:19 63 pounds of high fructose corn syrup.
17:21 - [Audience Member] That's America?
17:22 - That's America, yes.
17:25 Now, what is high fructose corn syrup?
17:27 Well, you'll see in a minute.
17:28 It's one glucose, one fructose,
17:30 we'll talk about those at great length.
17:32 One of the reasons we use high fructose corn syrup
17:34 is because it's sweeter.
17:35 So here's sucrose, this is cane or beet sugar,
17:38 standard table sugar, you know, the white stuff,
17:41 and we give that an index in sweetness of 100.
17:44 So here's high fructose corn syrup,
17:45 it's actually sweeter, it's about 120.
17:47 So, you should be able to use less, right?
17:51 Wrong, we use just as much, in fact, we use more.
17:56 So, here's lab fructose over here, crystalline fructose.
17:58 And they're starting to put crystalline fructose
18:00 into some of the soft drinks.
18:03 They're actually advertising it as a good thing.
18:06 Phew.
18:07 And that's got a sweetness of 173,
18:09 so you should be able to cut that way back, right?
18:12 They're not.
18:13 Lactose, down here, milk sugar, it's not sweet at all.
18:16 And glucose, I should point out over here, 74.
18:19 It's not particularly sweet, and we're gonna
18:20 get to that at the end, and what goes on with glucose.
18:24 But anyway, there's why we use it, it's sweeter,
18:27 it's also cheaper as I'll show you.
18:30 So, here's high fructose corn syrup.
18:32 One glucose, one fructose.
18:35 Notice the glucose is a six membered ring,
18:37 the fructose is a five membered ring.
18:39 They are not the same.
18:41 Believe me, they're not the same.
18:43 That's what this whole talk is about
18:45 is how their not the same.
18:47 And here's sucrose, and they're just
18:49 bound together by this ether linkage.
18:51 We have this enzyme in our gut called sucrose,
18:53 it kills that bond in two seconds flat,
18:56 and you absorb it and, basically, high fructose corn syrup,
19:00 sucrose, it's a non issue, it's a wash.
19:03 They're the same.
19:05 And they know that they're the same,
19:10 the soft drink companies and the corn refiners.
19:11 Because here are their missives.
19:14 This comes from the Corn Refiners Association.
19:16 Obesity research shows high fructose corn syrup
19:18 metabolizes and impacts satiety similar to sugar.
19:22 Indeed it does, I agree.
19:27 Decent meetings, academic meetings around the country.
19:32 Hunger and satiety profiles energy intakes
19:34 following ingestion of soft drinks,
19:36 bottom line, research supported by
19:37 the American Beverage Institute
19:39 and the Corn Refiner's Association.
19:41 They are correct, there is absolutely
19:43 no difference between high fructose corn syrup and sucrose.
19:47 So much so that the Corn Refiner's Association,
19:49 in attempt to capture market share,
19:51 came out with this entire ad campaign.
19:55 You probably saw it on the back page
19:57 of the New York Times, it was on TV, it's everywhere.
20:00 "My hairdresser says that sugar's healthier
20:02 "than high fructose corn syrup.
20:03 "Wow, you get your hair done by a doctor?"
20:06 I didn't know I could cut hair.
20:08 If you all wanna see all of them,
20:10 there are a whole bunch of them.
20:11 You can go to www.sweetsurprise.com
20:14 and see how you're being hoodwinked.
20:16 But indeed, this is true.
20:18 High fructose corn syrup and sucrose are exactly the same.
20:22 They're both equally bad.
20:26 They're both dangerous, they're both poison.
20:30 Okay, I said it, poison.
20:33 My charge before the end of tonight
20:35 is to demonstrate fructose is a poison,
20:40 and I will do it, and you will tell me
20:41 if I was successful.
Image15t.png
Image15.png
xs sm lg
Image16t.png
Image16.png
xs sm lg
Image17t.png
Image17.png
xs sm lg
Image18t.png
Image18.png
xs sm lg
Image20t.png
Image20.png
xs sm lg
Image21t.png
Image21.png
xs sm lg
Image23t.png
Image23.png
xs sm lg
Image25t.png
Image25.png
xs sm lg
Image26t.png
Image26.png
xs sm lg
Image27t.png
Image27.png
xs sm lg
Image29t.png
Image29.png
xs sm lg
Image31t.png
Image31.png
xs sm lg
Image33t.png
Image33.png
xs sm lg
Image34t.png
Image34.png
xs sm lg
Image35t.png
Image35.png
xs sm lg
Image36t.png
Image36.png
xs sm lg
Image37t.png
Image37.png
xs sm lg
Image38t.png
Image38.png
xs sm lg
Image41t.png
Image41.png
xs sm lg
Image43t.png
Image43.png
xs sm lg
Image45t.png
Image45.png
xs sm lg
Image46t.png
Image46.png
xs sm lg
Remember me, buy my shirts!
pop art
MBZ