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Sanjur Figure 2


Figure 2. ML tree for 11 species of Cucurbita. Individual numbers in parentheses are those listed in Table 1 and in supporting information on the PNAS web site ( Taxa in bold print are domesticated species. Bootstrap values above the branches: parsimony in bold (100 bootstraps); distance in italics (1,000 bootstraps). Values below the branches represent ML steps (50,000 puzzle steps).

Carl Linnaeus, 1742, Genera Plantarum

link: list of works translated to English G Books | Planta Genera


G Book | Wang: Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Cucurbits

p. 6: Fig. 1-1

Sanjur, p. 8
p. 9: "Schaefer (2009) showed an Asian origin of cucurbitaceae in the Late Cretaceous, followed by the repeated spread of lineages into the African, American and Australian continents vie transoceanic long-distance dispersal."

"North American cucurbits stem from at least seven range expansions of Central and South American lineages; Madagascar was colonized 13 times, always form Africa; Australia was reached 12 times, apparently always from Southeast Asia. overall, cucurbitaceae underwent at least 43 successful long-distance dispersal events over the past 60 million years (fig 1-1)."

P. 18
The Mayans developed a distinct landrace called Semiolne pumpkin.
Asia: bitter gourds
Lagenaria sciceria - African origin but domesticated throughout india as tender vegetable.
Table 2-1 p. 19


Archaeological finds in pumpkin history dating back to 2000 BC explored in this short essay by Erwin at Iowa State College.


The Genes of Pumpkin and Squash article

C. moschata is likely the newest variation due to it's higher nutritional profile, chromosome count, and solid vine type resistant to squash vine borers.
All squash appear to breed with each other, making them likely variants of the same species, rather than separate species (c. pepo, c. maxima, c. foetidissma, etc). Some people note of cross-pollination between squash, cucumber and melon.
The squash with the least variations in produced fruit and the simplest will likely be the oldest; if simpler things equals older evolution.
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